[Abstract]: Mainly describes the UAV in China and the world within the scope of development, UAV advantages and disadvantages and its role in various fields. At present, UAVs in military or civilian have significant advantages. On the other hand, UAVs facing security issues; after years of unmanned aerial vehicle research and practice, UAV is gradually mature. There is a trend that the prospect of unmanned aerial vehicles will be very broad in the future.
As the name suggests, unmanned aerial vehicles are unmanned aircraft, automatic flight control by program or by the person on the ground or on the plane for remote control aircraft. It is equipped with autopilot, program control system, remote control and telemetry system, automatic navigation system, automatic landing system, through these systems to achieve long-range control flight.
Ⅰ,the development status of UAV
The United States is one of the major countries of unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles was extensively used in Gulf War. In the 1990s, the United States began to deploy and use of unmanned aerial vehicles, the most representative of the UAV is the "Predator" and "Global Hawk." Western countries, led by the United States, fully understand the importance of applying modern high-tech to the research and development of UAVs in modern warfare. UAV technology represents the world's highest level, a new generation of unmanned aerial vehicles from low altitude to high altitude long-endurance development, and even to the development of stealth unmanned aerial vehicles, body using high-tech composite materials, radar absorbing materials And low-noise engine, very good to achieve the purpose of stealth.
USA Predator UAVs
Ⅱ, the advantages and disadvantages of unmanned aerial vehicles
● to avoid the expense of aircrew, because no flight personnel, to protect the lives of people;
● does not require personnel survival system and emergency life-saving systems, etc., greatly reducing the weight of the aircraft;
• Low manufacturing and life-cycle costs, without expensive training and maintenance costs;
● Long cycle of use, easy maintenance;
● UAV can take-off and landing at fixed-point, no need for landing site, you can radio control or through the machine Carrying out a computer to realize long-range remote control.
● Mainly in the low viability, and has a strong air defense capability when enemy combat.
● Poor wind and airflow capacity, in the big air flow chaos of the flight, the aircraft easily deviated from the flight line, It is difficult to maintain a smooth flight attitude;
● Affected by the weather, UAV flight altitude is lower than expected, at an altitude of 3000 ~ 4500 m
Of the altitude, continuous flight after 10 ~ 15 min will make the aircraft damaged;
● UAVs are not strong enough to cope with unexpected events. When there is strong signal interference, easily lead to the receiver and the ground Workstations lose contact;
●mechanical parts also have the possibility of failure, in the event of steering gear failure, and that the unmanned aerial vehicles and airborne equipment Will be fatal.
Ⅲ, the application of UAV
▶ UAV applications in the military
Although the UAV is not the main battlefield over the implementation of air missions, but it has become an indispensable part. As the UAV is unmanned, so it can be sent to a dangerous environment to perform tasks without fear of casualties, so the UAVs is very popular in the world's major military countries, the United States believes that the 21st century Of the air initiative will be mainly determined by the development of UAV technology level.
▶ UAVs are used for weather forecasting and global warming research
The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has embarked on the use of unmanned aerial vehicles for weather forecasting and global warming research. Chinese researchers also in the 24th Antarctic expedition conducted the first polar UAV experimental verification, in north China's Zhongshan Station in the 150m low altitude flight 30 km, on the Antarctic pack ice zone reconnaissance ice conditions.
▶ Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are used for forest fire monitoring and disaster relief
In the earthquake disaster in Sichuan, China, the Chinese researchers use UAV to bring back a large number of disaster areas on-site data. Unmanned aerial vehicle systems can also be used to detect, identify, locate and monitor forest fires, in the absence of fire can be used when unmanned aerial vehicles to monitor vegetation, estimate the hydrogen content and fire risk index, after the fire can also be evaluated after the disaster Impact. Unmanned aerial vehicles in disaster weather, or polluted environment to carry out the task of high-risk, does have an unparalleled advantage.
▶ UAVs for aerial photogrammetry
The unmanned aerial photogrammetry system belongs to the special aerial surveying and mapping platform. It has high technical content and involves many fields. It is composed of complex materials, power devices, actuators, attitude sensors, heading and height sensors, navigation and positioning devices and communication devices. As well as remote sensing sensors require careful selection and research and development.
UAV photogrammetric system to obtain high-resolution spatial data for the application target, through the 3S technology in the system integration application, to achieve real-time observation capability and spatial data processing capability UAV aerial photogrammetric system with low operating cost, The implementation of the task of high flexibility, is gradually becoming a useful aerial photogrammetric system, as well as an important tool for spatial data acquisition.
Ⅳ, the prospects for the development of unmanned aerial vehicles
At present, the civilian unmanned aerial vehicles mainly concentrated in the remote, unmanned areas, unmanned aircraft civilian, it is necessary to work on security, such as equipment detection to improve the avoidance system, so that it can fly in civil airspace, to ensure no unmanned aerial vehicle collision accident occurred.
China's civilian unmanned aerial vehicle development is rapid, unmanned aerial vehicle production costs are relatively low, that is the reason that why they are used extremely extensively. No casual risk, good performance, easy usage, it also has a broader prospect in Civilian areas. In addition to some research institutes, many enterprises are also optimistic about the commercial prospects of unmanned aerial vehicles, competing to launch unmanned aerial vehicle development, In China, hundreds of units are on the production, we believe the people-oriented now and in the future, there will be more perfect all areas of UAV to play a role.
UAV wide practicality determines its practical value, and also determines the world of unmanned aerial vehicle research is growing rapidly.
After many years of research and efforts, UAV has begun to gradually apply in industrial, agricultural, forestry, fisheries, mining, construction operations and medical health, disaster relief, meteorological detection, marine testing, scientific experiments, remote sensing mapping, culture Sports, etc., unmanned aerial vehicles have gradually mature from the juvenile period, large-scale civilian sooner or later that the day will come, so in the near future, the civilian use of unmanned aerial vehicles will be irresistible inevitable trend, with The rapid development of science and technology, unmanned aerial vehicles in the future the sky will be unlimited broad.